Thursday, March 16, 2006

The Bosnian War. A Jihad In Europe? - Part 2

Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović, The Mujahideen and The Al Qaeda Connection

The following list of articles, videos and pictures shows Mujahideen (Mudzahedin) and Al-Qaeda presence in Bosnia during the early 90's, in the run up to, during and after the Bosnian Jihad against the Serbs. The documents, videos and pictures also show the connection and detail the control of command that the Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic had over the Mujahideen and Al-Qaeda fighters. Also documented is the Jihadist nature of the Bosnian armies and the fact that not only did the Bosnian president approve of this, but was the one who helped establish this supremacist Islamic ideology in the Bosnian Muslim people. (I have noted in brackets in cases where the pictures are linked to videos. I have tried to keep some order to the information below, but with so much information to post, this became difficult, so apologies for some of the random order)

A photo of the mujahedeen unit in the Bosnian Muslim Army on parade in downtown Zenica in 1995. They are wearing green head bands that read in Arabic: "Our way is the Jihad."

This picture appeared in the London Times on December 11, 1995. The caption reads: "One of the Bosnian Army's Muslim brigades marches through Zenica in a demonstration of strength by 10,000 soldiers." Note that according to the Times these 10,000 troops constituted only *one* of "the Bosnian Army's Muslim brigades..."

(video)Bosnian Muslim army watch foreign Mujahideen. The Bosnian Muslims can be heard screaming "Al Jihad" and "Allah Akbar"

(video) UN(?) troops offload Mujahideen re-inforcements for the Bosnian Muslim Army(click here for clearer and slightly longer clip)

(video)A Meeting Between Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović, Al Qaeda Members And Mujahideen

(video)Bosnian president Alija Izetbegović assesses foreign (mostly Arab) and Bosnian Muslim Armies

[this is a video although it will not open in media player. Right click and save the file (target), then open in a player such as VLC] Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović Makes A Speech To The Mujahideen. The huge army responds with "Allahu Akbar"

Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic, left, taking a proud photo with a member of Mujahideen (possibly Al Qaeda Member).

(Bosnian President) Alija Izetbegovic with memebrs of 7th Brigade [Odred Mudzahedin]

"... The first and foremost of such conclusions is surely the one on the incompatibility of Islam and non-Islamic systems. There can be no peace or coexistence between the "Islamic faith" and non- Islamic societies and political institutions. ... Islam clearly excludes the right and possibility of activity of any strange ideology on its own turf. Therefore, there is no question of any laicistic principles, and the state should be an expression and should support the moral concepts of the religion. ..." page 22 "The Islamic Declaration" book ("Islamska deklaracija"), written by Mr. Alija Izetbegovic, Bosnian Muslim leader. (edit-Bosnian Muslim "President")
In preparing the ground for the conflicts between Bosnian Cristians (Croats and Serbs) and Bosnian Muslims, residents of different Arab countries who in the B&H had recognized the elements and challenge of “a holy war” - jihad. Coming from different Arab countries, most of them were from Yemen, Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Afghanistan, and bringing with them experience from a war from some of the Islamic trouble spots...It was reported that the Mujahedin began arriving in BiH as early as June 1992. (Tom Post & Joel Brand, «Help from the Holy Warriors», Newsweek, 5 October 1992, at 52).[Link]

Picture of an ID Bosnian Muslims issued to an Al-Qaeda terrorist Ahmed Zumair. Thousands of al-Qaeda got these IDs as well as passports.

Ossama bin Laden’s right hand man and top lieutenant, Saudi Abu Sulaiman al-Makki, was part of the first mujahedeen force to arrive in Bosnia. These were mujahedeen recruited, financed, and organized by Ossama bin Laden. Al-Makki joined Barbaros in the first attack by about 43 Saudi Arabian mujahedeen in central Bosnia against Bosnian Serb forces. This is the engagement where the Saudi Arabian mujahedeen decapitated three Bosnian Serb troops near Teslic and held their heads as war trophies. A prominent member of this mujahedeen contingent that attacked Bosnian Serb forces, Abu Asim al-Makki, later was the major planner of the October, 2000 attack on the USS Cole that killed 17 US sailors.[Link]

Abu Abdel Aziz Barbaros, the "senior Al-Qaeda" who commanded the Bosnian Muslim mujahedeen unit of the Bosnian Muslim Army.

The commander of the El Mujahed Battalion was Abu Abdel Aziz “Barbaros,” described as a “senior Al-Qaeda recruiter” in a report presented before the National Commission of Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (popularly known as the 9/11 Commission)...He was an early member of the Al-Qaeda movement established by Osama bin Laden and Abdullah Azzam.
After war broke out in Yugoslavia, Aziz was made the amir, or military commander of the Saudi Arabian and Afghani mujahedin in Bosnia. Aziz established his headquarters at the Mehurici camp outside of Travnik in central Bosnia.
German reporter Renate Flottau of Der Spiegel reported that she personally saw and spoke to Osama bin Laden in 1994, when he allegedly visited Alija Izetbegovic in Sarajevo. Bin Laden had been issued a Bosnian passport by the Bosnian Embassy in Vienna in 1993. One of the suicide hijackers in the 9/11 attacks also had a Bosnian passport. Moreover, four to six Bosnian citizens, Algerian Muslim mujahedin who were granted Bosnian citizenship by the Bosnian Muslim government were later arrested by US forces and sent to the Guantanamo Bay prison where they were questioned on their connections to Al-Qaeda.[Link]

...far more interesting news item concerning bin Laden, the one that has been either overlooked or else deliberately ignored by the mainstream media. It concerns the testimony of my old acquaintance, British journalist Eve-Ann Prentice, who appeared as a defense witness at Slobodan Milosevic’s trial at The Hague on February 3. Presiding judge Patrick Robinson abruptly stopped her testimony the moment she disclosed having seen Osama bin Laden walk into the office of late Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic in November 1994. Before she could continue Prosecutor Geoffrey Nice objected and judge Robinson cut off the testimony, declaring it “irrelevant.”
...Sorces close to the Milosevic defense team have posted an unofficial summary of her testimony, which says she was cut off after testifying that, “[w]hile she was waiting in Izetbegovic’s foyer both she, and a journalist from Der Speigel, saw Osama bin Laden being escorted into Izetbegovic’s office.” This account has not been contradicted by the ICTY or by Ms. Prentice herself.[Link]

The United States has long been alarmed by the presence in Bosnia of hundreds of Arab-born Muslim fundamentalists who first traveled there in the 1990s to fight for the nation’s substantial Muslim population during the civil war. Many went there at the direction of Osama bin Laden, who apparently saw the opportunity for a Jihad defending Muslims against Serb and Croat Christians.
Osama Bin Laden directly aided the Bosnian Muslims, both financially (weapons procurement) and with training. In addition, that same “aid” was extended to the separatist Albanians of Kosovo and Macedonia. Ironically, the US found Bin Laden and his supporters “convenient” allies when dealing with Bosnian Muslims and Kosovo Albanians, again in another so-called struggle for “freedom ”.
Abu el Ma’ali (Abdelkader Mokhtari), a senior representative of Al-Qaida, was based in Bosnia until recently. Just a few years ago, a US official called him a junior Osama Bin Laden. He had to leave Sarajevo after several embassies complained to the Bosnian authorities. Incidentally, he was issued an apartment by none other than Bakir Izetbegovic, son of Alija, who ran the Sarajevo Canton Construction Bureau [government agency supervising all construction and development – tr.][Link] (note:there is a lot more relevant information this link, too much for a short post)

Therefore, it is safe to say that the birth of al-Qaeda as a force on the world stage can be traced directly back to 1992, when the Bosnian Muslim government of Alija Izetbegovic issued a passport in the Vienna embassy to Osama bin Laden. The Wall Street Journal reported in 2001 that "for the past 10 years, the most senior leaders of al Qaeda have visited the Balkans, including bin Laden himself on three occasions between 1994 and 1996...Many recruits to the Balkan wars came originally from Chechnya, a jihad in which Al Qaeda has also played a part."[Link]

The Bosnian government received money, arms and a number of volunteers from a number of Muslim countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Libya. The latter caused particular controversy: foreign fighters, styling themselves "mujahiddin," turned up in Bosnia...The German magazine Der Spiegel claimed that Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda guerrillas visited Bosnia in 1993 and met Izetbegović when he inspected a unit of Islamic volunteer fighters. [Link]

About 80 people in central Bosnia are manning road blocks around a village where evictions from illegally occupied properties were reported to be imminent.
The villages are largely occupied by Mujahideen, ex-soldiers from Islamic countries, who came over to fight for the Muslim dominated Bosnian army during the war.
Many of them have settled in villages around the municipality of Maglai, and are now living illegally in Serb-owned houses.
Most live illegally in houses vacated by local Serbs fleeing fighting which swept through the area during the war from 1992 to 1995.[Link]

Brzezinski's interview has tremendous importance today. According to a Dutch intelligence report on Bosnia, in the early 1990s Pentagon intelligence worked with the Saudis and Iranians to bring weapons and mujahideen terrorists - the 'Afghan Arabs' - into Bosnia to indoctrinate and lead Alija Izetbegovic's Muslim extremists in fighting the Bosnian Serbs.[Link]

a highly classified State Department report, prepared last year, warned that the Muslim-controlled portions of Bosnia have become a safe haven for Islamic terrorism. The report pointed out that hundreds of foreign mujahideen, who became Bosnian citizens and received passports after battling their Christian foes, present a major terrorist threat to Europe and the United States. They include hard-core terrorists, some with ties to Osama bin Laden, who were protected by the Muslim government in Sarajevo.[Link]

Click Here For Part 1


  1. I agree. AQ got off and running in the global sphere after 1992. Before that they were largely stuck in Afghanistan with nothing to do.

    I have to ask though: is there evidence/indication that Izetbegovic was welcoming these foreigners b/c he felt that the Serbs/Croats were ganging up on him? What have you found with regards to the reason behind his welcoming them?

    Did he, ebfore turning to the Mujahideen, ask the West for help?

    Also check out his book: Islam between East and West.

  2. from what i've seen so far it would seem that he did have contacts with the mujahideen and was waiting to get the go ahead from the west before he started bringing them in.

    i haven't come across anything that indicates he asked the west for support although one article i have come across suggests he went to the arab world for support when the west refused. whether this was due to his request for support for the creation of an islamic state in europe might have been the reason. i guess that it wasn't until he'd worked on his propaganda a bit that the west decided to join, although as i said there is very little info that indicates he asked the west for help before bringing in the mujahideen, rather he was waiting for the go ahead from the west.

  3. When you get the chance, you should do a similar analysis (infiltration of Wahhabi money) into the Chechnya situation.

    I'm convinced that the Wahhabis fucked that country up.

    Prior to the past couple of decades Chechens were anti-Russian yes, and warriors yes, but they were Sufi. How did they suddenly become Wahhabi?

  4. As to Izetbegovic: WHY was he asking support? Was he afraid of something? Or was he planning something? I do know that before the West entered the Yugo situation, they demanded that the mujahideen first leave. Which, in fact, is what delayed the Western forces from coming in.

  5. in my honest opinion he was planning something. i think his view was that not only did he have to create an islamic state, but an exlusively islamic state. it seems he was also angered by the way that yugoslav muslims practiced in his eyes a more docile form of islam and if he didn't change this, he feared they would lose their muslim identity.

    his history, background, not so much the upbringing but his life after his mid teens shows that he had adopted an extreme ideology of islamic supremacy.
    his dream of a muslim only bosnia is also what got him locked up in '83 and his book "the islamic declaration" didn't help much when it came to his trial.

    from his book, "the islamic declaration" :

    "... The first and foremost of such conclusions is surely the one on the incompatibility of Islam and non- Islamic systems. There can be no peace or coexistence between the "Islamic faith" and non- Islamic societies and political institutions. ... Islam clearly excludes the right and possibility of activity of any strange ideology on its own turf. Therefore, there is no question of any laicistic principles, and the state should be an expression and should support the moral concepts of the religion. ..."

    you know, the biggest problem when I was researching wasn't the lack of video or documentation but the lack of a way to translate the huge amount of stuff i came across.

    btw, i'll try and do some research into the chechen situation, but it probably wont be for a while.

  6. you know when i read his islam between east and west book i was only 16. i should go back and read it again. it may turn out to be a more metaphysical account of his 'islamic declaration'

  7. i'll try and check it out when i get a chance, from what i've seen of it (extracts) it seems like a book focused more on a general readership, possibly even an attempt to paint himself as less extreme.

  8. I am still skeptical: Milosevic went to war against Slovenes and Croats long before he started to fight Muslims. So how am I supposed to believe that, in Bosnia, Milosevic suddenly became the "good guy", or even the lesser evil?

  9. Forgive me for what might appear as laziness. But I am SO SO busy reading the Koran and Hadiths and numerous writings on the danger of islam etc etc... that I need a quick, concise, easy answer...

    regarding the bosnian war...

    as an infidel, were the serbs the good guys?

    or have I confused 2 very separate events?

    and if I havent, someone explain to me.. what side our governments chose to defend and.. am i right in thinking that....

    as an infidel.. it was SO the wrong one?

    many thanks


  10. and Tudjman wasn't causing problems before Milosevic?

    the whole point of what i have posted is to show a part of european history that has been concealed in order to paint a rosy pictured of the bosnian muslim regime during the 90's

    read it, don't read it. it's your choice

  11. : the whole point of what i have posted is to show a part of
    : european history that has been concealed (...)

    "concealed" is a deceptive word: the presence of mujahedeen had been reported at the time, but nobody worried about it (at the time) so it was quickly forgotten.

  12. Thanks for another excellent report on this subject, J. I agree with the comments as well regarding the infiltration of Saudi influence here. Like you said, how did all of these groups suddenly become violent wahhabists?

    As for Milosevic, I see him as a modern day Vlad Dracula. He was quite mad for the most part, but once he began reacting to the jihadis, he was reacting to a real threat. And the atrocities committed against the Serbs were horrible enough to warrant a reaction. The world just failed to notice their plight until things really got uglier than they were. I fear the same fate for Nigeria at the moment, actually.

  13. Although you have to remember that the mass graves of Bosnians that were unearthed were of *Bosnians*, not of Mujahideen fighters. So Milosevic was obviously cleansing ethnic Bosnian civilians.

    I also disagree as to whether 'conceal' is the proper term. I just think no one cared about the Mujahideen at the time. We certanly knew about it. Everyone I know knows about it, but it just never seemed a big deal. To me, largely because when Western help went into Bosnia they kicked out all the Mujahideen as a condition.

  14. well, they may have said they kicked the mujahideen out but it doesn't seem like they did, as their presence was there throughout the 90's, even now.

    i've also seen quite a few vids of un troops transporting mujahideen all over the shop.

    and by concealed, i mean the media has actively covered up the activities of the mujahideen (and even local muslim war criminals, such as nasar oric).

    in my eyes it seemed most leaders, and most media outlets were intent on helping with the establishment of a muslim state in europe and with demonisation of the serbs, regardless of the atrocities carried out against them.

    just think about it, if the media had reported on the crimes carried out against the serbs in the early 90's and alija's plans for an exclusive islamic state were made public, public support would have been for a war alongside the serbs and against the bosnian muslims, not the other way round.

  15. Ghost: the analogy to Vlad Tepes might be accurate, in the sense that Vlad might have done as much damage to his own cause as Milosevic did, if he killed as many of his own people as the legends have it.

    :just think about it, if the media had reported on the crimes carried out against the serbs
    :in the early 90's and alija's plans for an exclusive islamic state were made public, public
    :support would have been for a war alongside the serbs and against the bosnian muslims, not
    :the other way round.

    J: the public support was never for a war against the serbs, it was for peacekeeping.
    It might have looked like "a war against the serbs" because the serbs had the bigger army.
    It looked pretty spineless to me.

  16. question: who is to say that the desire was to see a "muslim" state as opposed to a bosnian one?

    for example. if the serbs got a state theirs would be largely christian. if the croats had a state theirs would be largely christian. no one calls thsoe christian states. why is a bosnian state though, called muslim, instead of bosnian? i think you've proven that bosnian leaders were using islam the same way that serbs and croats were using their religious propoganda. however, as a matter of evidence, that doesn't demonstrate an Islamist agenda; unless you are simultaneously positing that the Serbs and Croats wanted Christian states and were willing to kill all those who opposed this view.

    do you see my point?

  17. "why is a bosnian state though, called muslim, instead of bosnian? "

    because alija's army was the one with the islamic battle cry and his vision was a muslim only bosnia.

    if milosevic led his army with calls of 'jesus is great' whilst waving a bible around, then i would consider his motives, or "vision" of serbia as christian in nature. but he didn't do any of those things. and he didn't write
    anything like alija's "islamic declaration".

  18. well for all of you here just to remind you where did war in ex yougoslavia started.
    The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that took place between 1991 and 2001. They comprised two sets of successive wars affecting all of the six former Yugoslav republics who used to be a countries before they formed Yugoslavia.

    War in Slovenia (1991)
    Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995)
    Bosnian War (1992-1995)
    Wars in Albanian-populated areas:
    Kosovo War (1999)
    Southern Serbia conflict (2001)
    Macedonia conflict (2001)

    Well just wonder if you know who started all those wars? (Serbians, actually Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian Ortodox backed by Serbia)
    With the dream of creating greather serbia.

    So to get back to bosnia who was before forming yougoslavia as one of its republic a independent country with its kings, flag, language 300 years befor serbs when they didnt even know what is it, army , well defined boarders and diplomacy as well as its church which wasnt catholic or ortodox, mind you that ortodox (or how serbs call it serbian) church was first establisht in 1920 even dough it wrong to say serbian because serbians in roman language means slave about which in 2ed half of X(10)century writes Konstantin Porfirogenet, in his notes called "De Administrando Imperio".
    They also got their ortodox religion from Roman Emeror Heraclius.

    I dont know how well you know the history but Until now Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia were under many different rulers like Romans, AustroHungarians, Ottomans for 500 years and that is when most bosnians became muslims, but regardless of religions bosnians were always bosnians until 19 century when bosnian catholics under influence of croatia became "Bosnian Croats" or "Bosnian Ortodox" Became "Bosnian Serbians" under serbian influence and that is when everything started in Bosnia. First of all i think that citizens of any country are called not by their religion but by their country name eg:America-Americans, Canada-Canadians, Bosnia-Bosnians all of these countries have many different religions if you are to call them by the religion you are separating people in each of those countries, so if bosnian ortodox, or bosnian catcholics call them self "Bosnian Serbs" or "Bosnian Croats" then you give them same right not just for ortodox and catcholics but for all other religions to do same thing as Ortodox and Catholics are doing in Bosnia...So all i can say everybody is welcomed to be and become Bosnian I AM proud of being one do not belong to either one of those religions because my family is all mixed with different religions but one nation a Bosnian One. If you dont like it here and want to be Croatian or Serbian pack your bags and move to Croatia or Serbia. And because Bosnia is ethnic mostly a majority muslim country dont be affraid they dont bite...
    Ottomans ruled Bosnia 500 years and with most known modern world at that time and during their rule everybody was practising their religion, and after 500 years Bosnia is stil Bosnia with its mix of churches, mosques. Croatia is still Croatia, Serbia is Serbia and so on isnt that Democracy?
    What happened with all the muslims after Ottomans left like lets say if we go further then Serbia, Bosnia or Croatia like lets say Spain what happened with all muslims in Spain and Jews in Spain when christians took over either convert, die or even many moved to middle east from Marocco, Iraq, Palestine all the way to south Africa but that is another page in history

  19. What jihad you are taling about??
    let me ask you where did jihad began or suicide bomber??? jihad is a holly war defending what is yours not attacking. a suicide bomber humm let see how many of you would defend your family sons. daughters humm my question is how far would you go to defend them if you have no guns??? Well Bosnia was defending its borders

  20. what jihad??? do you know hwta jihad means- holly war but jihad call for holly war only to deffend what is yours. Suicide Bomber?? what is that??? I ask how many of you would defend your family sons, daughters in case of far you willing to go to defend them if you have no guns... so let see Bosnia during war no guns had chance to see 2 friends one gun if one dies other can have it hummm people used to go with a bottle of gasoline ona tank cose you know what, if the line breaks they will come and kill your familly not just shoot them, they would rape them, your mother, sister, cut head to your father , brother all in front of your eyes. So my question is how much and by what means would you defend them???
    Suicide bomber, Jihad goes way back
    are suicide bombers all Japanese Kamikazi Pilots?? or maybe Oklahoma Bombing well the guy wanst happy about something, or the massacre, which happened on May 25th 1995 on the Kapija Square in Tuzla where about 70 inocent people died from Serbian fired granades including 9 of my friends. What is Srebrenica??? Betyed by Dutch Sold by West world to bucker of balkans Slobodan Milosevic???

    but Jihad and suicide bomber goes way back...

    3'rd millennium BC : The Canaanites were the earliest known inhabitants of Palestine. They became urbanized and lived in city-states, one of which was Jericho . They developed an alphabet. Palestine's location at the center of routes linking three continents made it the meeting place for religious and cultural influences from Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor. It was also the natural battleground for the great powers of the region and subject to domination by adjacent empires, beginning with Egypt in the 3d millennium BC.

    2'rd millennium BC : Egyptian hegemony and Canaanite autonomy were constantly challenged by such ethnically diverse invaders as the Amorites, Hittites, and Hurrians. These invaders, however, were defeated by the Egyptians and absorbed by the Canaanites, who at that time may have numbered about 200000.

    14th century BC : Egyptian power began to weaken, new invaders appeared: the Hebrews, a group of Semitic tribes from Mesopotamia, and the Philistines (after whom the country was later named), an Aegean people of Indo-European stock.

    1230 BC : Joshua conquered parts of Palestine. The conquerors settled in the hill country, but they were unable to conquer all of Palestine.

    1125 BC : The Israelites, a confederation of Hebrew tribes, finally defeated the Canaanites but found the struggle with the Philistines more difficult . Philistines had established an independent state on the southern coast of Palestine and controlled the Canaanite town of Jerusalem.

    1050 BC : Philistines with there superior in military organization and using iron weapons, they severely defeated the Israelites about 1050 BC .

    1000 BC : David, Israel's great king, finally defeated the Philistines, and they eventually assimilated with the Canaanites . The unity of Israel and the feebleness of adjacent empires enabled David to establish a large independent state, with its capital at Jerusalem.

    922 BC : Under David's son and successor, Solomon, Israel enjoyed peace and prosperity , but at his death in 922 BC the kingdom was divided into Israel in the north and Judah in the south .

    722-721 BC : When nearby empires resumed their expansion, the divided Israelites could no longer maintain their independence . Israel fell to Assyria.

    586 BC : Judah was conquered by Babylonia, which destroyed Jerusalem and exiled most of the Jews living there. Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem. The Temple was sacked and set fire to, and razed to the ground. The Royal Palace and all the great houses were destroyed, the population carried off in chains to Babylon. And they lamented on their long march into exile.

    539 BC : Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylonia and he permitted the Jews to return to Judea, a district of Palestine. Under Persian rule the Jews were allowed considerable autonomy. They rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem and codified the Mosaic law, the Torah, which became the code of social life and religious observance. The Jews were bound to a universal God.

    333 BC : Persian domination of Palestine was replaced by Greek rule when Alexander the Great of Macedonia took the region. Alexander's successors, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria , continued to rule the country . The Seleucids tried to impose Hellenistic (Greek) culture and religion on the population.

    141-63 BC : Jews revolted under the Maccabees and set up an independent state.

    132-35 BC : Jews revolts erupted, numerous Jews were killed, many were sold into slavery, and the rest were not allowed to visit Jerusalem. Judea was renamed Syria Palaistina.

    63 BC : Jerusalem was overrun by Rome. Herod was appointed King of Judea. He slaughtered the last of the Hasmoneans and ordered a lavish restoration and extension of the Second Temple. A period of great civil disorder followed with strife between pacifists and Zealots, and riots against the Roman authorities.

    37-4 BC : During the rule of King Herod the Great Jesus of Nazareth, peace be upon him was born. And years after, he began his teaching mission. His attempts to call people back to the pure teachings of Abraham and Moses were judged subversive by the authorities. He was tried and sentenced to death; "yet they did not slay him but only a likeness that was shown to them."

    70 AD : Titus of Rome laid siege to Jerusalem. The fiercely defended Temple eventually fell, and with it the whole city. Seeking a complete and enduring victory, Titus ordered the total destruction of the Herodian Temple. A new city named Aelia was built by the Romans on the ruins of Jerusalem, and a temple dedicated to Jupitor raised up.

    313 AD : Palestine received special attention when the Roman emperor Constantine I legalized Christianity. His mother, Helena, visited Jerusalem, and Palestine, as the Holy Land, became a focus of Christian pilgrimage. A golden age of prosperity, security, and culture followed. Most of the population became Hellenized and Christianized .

    324 AD : Constantine of Byzantium marched on Aelia. He rebuilt the city walls and commissioned the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and opened the city for Christian pilgrimage.

    29-614 AD : Byzantine (Roman) rule was interrupted , however , by a brief Persian occupation and ended altogether when Muslim Arab armies invaded Palestine and captured Jerusalem in AD 638 .

    638 AD : The Arab conquest began 1300 years of Muslim presence in what then became known as Filastin. Eager to be rid of their Byzantine overlords and aware of their shared heritage with the Arabs, the descendants of Ishmael, as well as the Muslims reputation for mercy and compassion in victory, the people of Jerusalem handed over the city after a brief siege. They made only one condition, That the terms of their surrender be negotiated directly with the Khalif 'Umar in person. 'Umar entered Jerusalem on foot. There was no bloodshed. There were no massacres. Those who wanted to leave were allowed to, with all their goods. Those who wanted to stay were guarantee protection for their lives, their property and places of worship.

    Palestine was holy to Muslims because the Prophet Muhammad had designated Jerusalem as the first qibla (the direction Muslims face when praying) and because he was believed to have ascended on a night journey to heaven from the the old city of Jerusalem (al-Aqsa Mosque today) , where the Dome of the Rock was later built. Jerusalem became the third holiest city of Islam. The Muslim rulers did not force their religion on the Palestinians, and more than a century passed before the majority converted to Islam. The remaining Christians and Jews were considered People of the Book. They were allowed autonomous control in their communities and guaranteed security and freedom of worship. Such tolerance was rare in the history of religion . Most Palestinians also adopted Arabic and Islamic culture. Palestine benefited from the empires trade and from its religious significance during the first Muslim dynasty, the Umayyads of Damascus.

    750 AD : The power shifted to Baghdad with the Abbasids, Palestine became neglected. It suffered unrest and successive domination by Seljuks, Fatimids, and European Crusaders. It shared, however, in the glory of Muslim civilization, when the Muslim world enjoyed a golden age of science, art, philosophy, and literature. Muslims preserved Greek learning and broke new ground in several fields, all of which later contributed to the Renaissance in Europe. Like the rest of the empire, however, Palestine under the Mamelukes gradually stagnated and declined.

    1517 AD : The Ottoman Turks of Asia Minor defeated the Mamelukes, with few interruptions, ruled Palestine until the winter of 1917-18. The country was divided into several districts (sanjaks), such as that of Jerusalem. The administration of the districts was placed largely in the hands of Arab Palestinians, who were descendants of the Canaanites. The Christian and Jewish communities, however, were allowed a large measure of autonomy. Palestine shared in the glory of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century, but declined again when the empire began to decline in the 17th century.

    1831-1840 AD : Muhammad Ali, the modernizing viceroy of Egypt, expanded his rule to Palestine . His policies modified the feudal order, increased agriculture, and improved education.

    1840 The Ottoman Empire reasserted its authority, instituting its own reforms .

    1845 Jewish in Palestine were 12,000 increased to 85,000 by 1914. All people in Palestine were Arabic Muslims and Christians.

    1897 the first Zionist Congress held Basle, Switzerland, issued the Basle programme on the colonization of Palestine.

    1904 the Fourth Zionist Congress decided to establish a national home for Jews in Argentina.

    1906 the Zionist congress decided the Jewish homeland should be Palestine.

    1914 With the outbreak of World War I, Britain promised the independence of Arab lands under Ottoman rule, including Palestine, in return for Arab support against Turkey which had entered the war on the side of Germany.

    1916 Britain and France signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which divided the Arab region into zones of influence. Lebanon and Syria were assigned to France, Jordan and Iraq to Britain and Palestine was to be internationalized.

    1917 The British government issued the Balfour Declaration on November 2, in the form of a letter to a British Zionist leader from the foreign secretary Arthur J. Balfour prmissing him the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine.

    1917-1918 Aided by the Arabs, the British captured Palestine from the Ottoman Turks. The Arabs revolted against the Turks because the British had promised them, in correspondence with Shareef Husein ibn Ali of Mecca, the independence of their countries after the war. Britain, however, also made other, conflicting commitments in the secret Sykes-Picot agreement with France and Russia (1916), it promised to divide and rule the region with its allies. In a third agreement, the Balfour Declaration of 1917, Britain promised the Jews a Jewish "national home" in Palestine .

    1918 After WW I ended, Jews began to migrate to Palestine, which was set a side as a British mandate with the approval of the League of Nations in 1922. Large-scale Jewish settlement and extensive Zionist agricultural and industrial enterprises in Palestine began during the British mandatory period, which lasted until 1948.

    1919 The Palestinians convened their first National Conference and expressed their opposition to the Balfour Declaration.

    1920 The San Remo Conference granted Britain a mandate over Palestine. and two years later Palestine was effectively under British administration. Sir Herbert Samuel, a declared Zionist, was sent as Britain's first High Commissioner to Palestine.

    1922 The Council of the League of Nations issued a Mandate for Palestine.

    1929 Large-scale attacks on Jews by Arabs rocked Jerusalem. Palestinians killed 133 Jews and suffered 116 deaths. Sparked by a dispute over use of the Western Wall of Al-Aqsa Mosque ( this site is sacred to Muslims, but Jews claimed it is the remaining of jews temple all studies shows clearly that the wall is from the Islamic ages and it is part of al-Aqsa Mosque). But the roots of the conflict lay deeper in Arab fears of the Zionist movement which aimed to make at least part of British-administered Palestine a Jewish state.

    1936 The Palestinians held a six-month General Strike to protest against the confiscation of land and Jewish immigration.

    1937 Peel Commission, headed by Lord Robert Peel, issued a report. Basically, the commission concluded, the mandate in Palestine was unworkable There was no hope of any cooperative national entity there that included both Arabs and Jews. The commission went on to recommend the partition of Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state, and a neutral sacred-site state to be administered by Britain.

    1939 The British government published a White Paper restricting Jewish immigration and offering independence for Palestine within ten years. This was rejected by the Zionists, who then organized terrorist groups and launched a bloody campaign against the British and the Palestinians.

    1947 Great Britain decided to leave Palestine and called on the United Nations (UN) to make recommendations. In response, the UN convened its first special session and on November 29, 1947, it adopted a plan calling for partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, with Jerusalem as an international zone under UN jurisdiction.

    1947 Arab protests against partition erupted in violence, with attacks on Jewish settlements in retalation to the attacks of Jews terrorist groups to Arab Towns and villages and massacres in hundred against unarmed Palestinian in there homes.

    15 May 1948 British decided to leave on this day, leaders of the Yishuv decided (as they claim) to implement that part of the partition plan calling for establishment of a Jewish state. The same day, the armies of Egypt, Transjordan (now Jordan), Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq joined Palestinian and other Arab guerrillas in a full-scale war (first Arab-Israeli War). The Arabs failed to prevent establishment of a Jewish state, and the war ended with four UN-arranged armistice agreements between Israel and Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria.

    The small Gaza Strip was left under Egyptian control, and the West Bank was controled by Jordan.

    Of the more than 800,000 Arabs who lived in Israeli-held territory before 1948, only about 170,000 remained. The rest became refugees in the surrounding Arab countries, ending the Arab majority in the Jewish state.

    1956 Attckes incursions by refugee guerrilla bands and attacks by Arab military units were made, Egypt refused to permit Israeli ships to use the Suez Canal and blockaded the Straits of Tiran erupted in the second Arab-Israeli War.

    Great Britain and France joined the attack because of their dispute with Egypt's president Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had nationalized the Suez Canal. Seizing the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula within few days. The fighting was halted by the UN after a few days, and a UN Emergency Force (UNEF) was sent to supervise the cease-fire in the Canal zone. By the end of the year their forces withdrew from Egypt, but Israel refused to leave Gaza until early 1957.

    1965 The Palestine Liberation Organization was established.
    1967 Nasser's insistence in 1967 that the UNEF leave Egypt, led Israel to attack Egypt, Jordan, and Syria simultaneously on 5th of June.

    The war ended six days later with an Israeli victory backed bu USA. Israel occuiped Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, Arab East Jerusalem, West Bank, Golan Heights.

    After 1967 war, several guerrilla organizations within the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) carried out guerrillas attacks on Israeli miletary targets, with the stated objective of "redeeming Palestine."

    After 1967 war, several guerrilla organizations within the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) carried out guerrillas attacks on Israeli miletary targets, with the stated objective of "redeeming Palestine."

    1973 Egypt joined Syria in a war on Israel to regain the territories lost in 1967. The two Arab states struck unexpectedly on October 6. After crossing the suez channel the Arab forces gain a lot of advanced positions in Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights and manage to defeat the Israeli forces for more then three weeks. Israeli forces with a massive U.S. again economic and military assistance managed to stop the arab forces after a three-week struggle. The Arab oil-producing states cut off petroleum exports to the United States and other Western nations in retaliation for their aid to Israel.

    In an effort to encourage a peace settlement, U.S. secretary of state, Henry Kissinger, managed to work out military disengagements between Israel and Egypt in the Sinai and between Israel and Syria in the Golan Heights during 1974.

    1974 The Arab Summit in Rabat recognized the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.

    1982 Israel launched an invasion of Lebanon aimed at wiping out the PLO presence there. By mid-August, after intensive fighting in and around Bayrut, the PLO agreed to withdraw its guerrillas from the city. Israeli troops remained in southern Lebanon.

    1987 Relations between Israel and the Palestinians entered a new phase with the intifada, a series of uprisings in the occupied territories that included demonstrations, strikes, and rock-throwing attacks on Israeli soldiers.

    1988 The PNC meeting in Algiers declared the State of Palestine as outlined in the UN Partition Plan 181.


    So JIHAD (holly war or struggle) until there is humand kind not just in Bosnia or Palestine

    The rest is for next page in history

  21. The video of UN troops offloading reinforcements is actually a video of a prisoner transfer.

  22. Laatste strijder Ratko Mladic tegen de islamisering van Bosnie/Europa gearresteerd.

  23. Among the 2000 dead discovered were a very large number of soldiers who, under the leadership of jihadist Naser Orić killed some 3000 Serbian civilians beforehand.That raises perhaps the most important point: Srebrenica was not a purposeful slaughter of innocent civilians, but an effort by Serb forces to save the lives of their countrymen from an enemy army that had already spilled ample blood, and which was cowardly seeking refuge in protected civilian areas that were supposed to be unarmed, and therefore demilitarized.